Electroencephalography (EEG) signals are spatio-temporal in nature. EEG has very good temporal resolution but typically does not possess high spatial resolution. The surface Laplacian enhances the spatial resolution and selectivity of the surface electrical activity recording. Concentric ring electrodes have been shown to estimate the surface Laplacian directly with significantly better spatial resolution than conventional electrodes. Further, EEG at times has poor signal quality. The EEG signals recorded with the tri-polar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) system, tEEG, have significantly higher SNR than from bipolar concentric ring electrode and conventional disc electrode emulations. The tri-polar electrodes have also shown significantly higher spatial resolution (10x) as well as mutual information (0.1x). Further, we have found high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the tEEG prior to seizures in 14 patients which were not present in concurrent EEG. We have also shown that tEEG was significantly better for real-time center-out cursor control. In the opposite direction, we have shown that transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via the TCREs from the scalp surface has stopped: penicillin, pilocarpine, and pentylenetetrazol induced seizures, protected the brain, increased GABA, decreased glutamate, prevented/delayed brains from becoming epileptic, and blocked pain via opioid receptors.
Dr. Besio is a Professor in the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering at the University of Rhode Island (URI). Dr. Besio received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in biomedical engineering from the University of Miami and a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Central Florida. Prior to joining academia, Dr. Besio worked 12+ years in the biomedical device and electronics industries. Dr. Besio specializes in research to develop innovative biomedical instrumentation for diagnosis and therapies to enhance the lives of persons with neurological disease and disability. This work involves unique patented concentric electrodes for neuromodulation and brain computer interfacing (bidirectional). Dr. Besio is a co-founder of the URI Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Program that spawned the new Ryan Institute for Neuroscience. He is an Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Senior Member, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) (representative to TBioCAS and BioCAS, past EMBS Sensors Council representative, past Vice President of Finance, past North American Administrative Committee Member, past Wearable Biomedical Sensors and Systems Technical Committee Chair, past Chair Providence Chapter, and Faculty Advisor URI Student Chapter), and an active member of the American Epilepsy Society (Technical Committee). Dr. Besio has also developed intellectual property that forms the basis for his medical device startup company CREmedical Corporation. Dr. Besio is passionate about moving his research beyond the laboratory to help relieve disease, disability, pain, and suffering.